Thermal and Vascular Physiology Laboratory

The Thermal and Vascular Physiology Laboratory focuses on neural control of the cardiovascular system, with emphasis on the skin. Ongoing lab projects include: identifying the consequences of skin grafting on the ability of burn survivors to regulate internal temperature; understanding how heat stress compromises the control of blood pressure during hemorrhage; and identifying mechanisms responsible for increases in sweating and skin blood flow during post-menopausal hot flashes.


Dr. Crandall’s research interests revolve around neural control of the cardiovascular system, with emphasis on how thermal stress modifies this control. Research areas range from integrative thermoregulatory studies in healthy and unique populations (e.g., skin graft patients) to mechanistic studies on the skin microcirculation. Clinical applications of this work include improved blood pressure control during hemorrhage (particularly in heat stressed individuals such as soldiers, construction workers, etc), improved temperature regulatory capacity injured/diseased individuals (e.g., skin graft patients, congestive heart failure, etc), and a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cutaneous responses during the post-menopausal hot flash.​

Current Projects

  • Effects of burn injuries on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses in soldiers.
  • Effects of exercise in burn survivors.
  • Mechanisms by which heat stress compromises blood pressure control during hemorrhage.
  • Effects of aging and cardiac function with Dobutamine and heat stress.
  • Hemodynamics during Leg Heating in Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD).


    Representative Publications (170 in total)

    1. Schlader, Z.J.*, M.S. Ganio*, J. Pearson, R.A.I. Lucas, D. Gagnon, E. Rivas, K. J. Kowalske, C.G. Crandall. Heat acclimation improves heat exercise tolerance and heat dissipation in individuals with extensive skin grafts. J Appl Physiol (in press) *co-first authors.
    2. Crandall, C.G., T.E. Wilson. Human Cardiovascular Responses to Passive Heat Stress. Comprehensive Physiology 5:17-43, 2015.
    3. Lucas, R.A.I., S. Sarma, Z.J. Schlader, J. Pearson, C.G. Crandall. Age-related changes in cardiac systolic and diastolic function during whole-body passive hyperthermia. Exp Physiol 100:422-434, 2015.
    4. Gagnon, D., Z.J. Schlader, C.G. Crandall. Sympathetic activity during passive heat stress in healthy aged humans. J Physiol 593:2225-2235, 2015 PMCID: PMC4422574.
    5. Ganio, M.S., M. Overgaard, T. Seifert, N.H. Secher, P. Johansson, M. Meyer, C.G. Crandall. Effect of heat stress on cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance during simulated hemorrhage to pre-syncope in young men. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 302:H1756-1761, 2012. PMCID: PMC3330796.
    6. Crandall, C.G., T.E. Wilson, J. Marving, M. Bundgaard-Nielsen, T. Siefert, T. Klausen, F. Andersen, N.H. Secher, B. Hesse. Colloid volume loading does not mitigate decreases in central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage while heat stressed. J Physiol 590:1287-1297, 2012. PMCID: PMC3381831.
    7. Heinonen, I., R.M. Brothers, J. Kemppainen, J. Knuuti, K.K. Kalliokoski, C.G. Crandall. Local heating, but not indirect whole-body heating, increases human skeletal muscle blood flow. J Appl Physiol 111:818-824, 2011. PMCID: PMC3174790.
    8. Bundgaard-Nielsen, M., T.E. Wilson, T. Seifert, N.H. Secher, C.G. Crandall. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat stressed humans. J Physiol. 588:3333-3339, 2010. PMCID: PMC2976026.
    9. Davis, S.L., M. Shibasaki, D.A. Low, J. Cui, D.M. Keller, G.F. Purdue, J.L. Hunt, B.D. Arnoldo, K.J. Kowalske, C.G. Crandall. Sustained impairments in cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in grafted skin following long-term recovery. J Burn Care Res 30:675-685, 2009. PMCID: PMC2818725.
    10. Cui, J., A. Arbab-Zadeh, A. Prasad, S. Durand, B.D. Levine, C.G. Crandall. Effects of heat stress on thermoregulatory responses in congestive heart failure patients. Circulation. 112:2286-2292, 2005.
    11. Crandall, C.G., W. Vongpatanasin, R.G. Victor. Mechanism of cocaine-induced hyperthermia in humans. Ann. Int. Med., 136:785-791, 2002.